What is open-ended play?
As a child, do you remember the feeling of just sitting with a material, of exploring it, without any end-goal in mind? It could have been pebbles, water or wooden blocks, sand, fabric or play-dough. The point is that you didn't know what you were going to do when you started, only that you felt the urge to experiment.
Open-ended play is play for its own sake, play without boundaries.
When you decide to complete a puzzle or play Snap!, there is only one way to do it. These games are closed-ended. There is enormous learning value to such activities - many require great skill to complete and you also learn how to finish tasks, follow rules and take turns. But these are distinctly different skills to the ones developed through open-ended play.
But open a set of blocks and you are challenged to use your imagination, to explore and to problem-solve. You learn to play independently, without the safety-net of instructions to follow. Your confidence grows. You become more patient and more resilient.
In this sense, open-ended play is more far-reaching and profound in its impact, than play where toys and games with only fixed outcomes are featured.
How it works
Open-ended play can simply be the exploration of materials - for example some paints and a sheet of paper. At first the child may make a few exploratory strokes of paint on the page with their fingers. Then they might become interested in how the paint drips and try it with a brush, taking increasingly large dollops and watching them fall.
This might lead to dragging the brush through a puddle of paint, observing the streaks of colour and how they mix. Then, perhaps, the activity changes again, as the aim becomes to cover the page completely. Before long, there is so much paint that the paper starts to soften and holes appear, which is in itself fascinating and sparks a whole new series of experiments.
This is open-ended play in its purest form. It was started with no goal in mind and there is no pretty picture at the end. One activity suggested another, and everything was interesting.
Or, to misappropriate a popular quote: ‘Open-ended play is the journey, not the destination.’
Toys and materials for open-ended play
Some toys lend themselves especially well to open-ended play. They are the toys that have no rules - and no batteries. They’re probably the toys you played with as a child, and they’re also often the most unassuming and inexpensive to acquire.
Here are some ideas:
Lego and other connecting toys like
Play people and animals (ideally genderless and generic)
Garden tools such as buckets, spades, jugs
Household items like wooden spoons, bowls and saucepans
Dress up clothes (non-specific)
Loose parts, such as a box of buttons or a packet of nuts and bolts
(Clean) recyclables, such as toilet rolls, cardboard boxes and yoghurt pots
Mark-making materials such as paint, chalk, charcoal
Natural materials: sticks, stones and pine cones
Tips for open-ended play
Let your child take the lead. It’s not open-ended if you’re taking charge or setting goals!
Allow mistakes and mess to happen. Since there is no end-product in sight, open-ended play is relaxed. Tidying as you go may ruin their train of thought.
Don’t help your child fix something or do it ‘the right way’, unless they ask you for help.
If they do ask for help or you want to help maintain momentum, try to get them to solve the problem first. Open-ended questions are most useful because they have to think about the answer. Why is it like that? Who could live here? How will it stay together?
You’ll know it’s going well because your child is deep in thought, lost in the activity.
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